Organization: UN Children’s Fund
Country: Viet Nam
Closing date: 17 Oct 2018
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* In line with the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the definition of children for this study will be those aged 0 to 18 years of age.
Viet Nam is in the middle of a major economic transition as the country moves from a rural, agriculture-based system to one centered on urban, industrial growth. Currently close to 20% of the urban population are internal migrants. To keep up with the growth in major industries, such as ICT, footwear and apparel, the rural-to-urban migration rate is growing at 9% annually. By 2019 the General Statistics Office estimates that 11% of the urban population will have arrived recently from the country side. According to the Ministry of Planning and Investment projections, by 2030, 46 million people (44% of the population) will be living in urban areas. The Government of Viet Nam identifies urban migrants, ethnic minorities and people with disabilities as the three most disadvantaged groups in the country, collectively making up one in four of Viet Nam’s population.
Children born in today’s lower middle income Viet Nam grow up in a reality much different to their parents, who primarily grew up in rural farming communities. While economic growth, industrialization and urbanization is bringing about positive change for more children and young people in terms of access to quality basic services including health, early childhood care and education, protection and social services, the gap between poor and rich is also widening. For most unskilled workers and their children, the reality of migrating to the city rarely meets the vision of improved livelihood. The immense migration phenomenon brings a complex range of challenges relating to the adverse impact that movement of people has on children.
With a total estimated population of 13 million people and with 130,000 new migrants arriving every year, Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) is Viet Nam’s fastest growing and largest city and the commercial, political, cultural and technological center of the country. Together with neighboring provinces in the Southern Economic Region, the City accounts for nearly 40% of Viet Nam’s gross domestic product. With GDP, per capita of USD 5,500 (2015), HCMC is the middle-income city of Viet Nam. However, on-going and new challenges are on the rise due to rapid urbanization, increasingly stretching economic and human resources to meet the demand of the city’s current and future social agenda.
Migrant children are among the most marginalized and vulnerable children in HCMC and an estimated 400,000 children are considered as temporary migrants who have moved to the city from other provinces either with their parents (350,000) or independently (50,000). Temporary internal migrants are challenged by the national household registration system (ho khau) that ties access to services (such as education) to the province of registered permanent residence. Some 36% of the population in Ho Chi Minh City has temporary resident status and as urbanization increases children from households who lack permanent registration experience reduced access to vital public services mostly since their parents can’t buy property, register a housing permit or vehicle, connect to the public utility system, or access subsidized healthcare and education. If a household lives in a location that is different from their ho khau, they may be unable to access government subsidized services in the location or forced to pay a higher rate for them—an extra burden that migrants unlikely afford.
The footwear and apparel industry has the largest number of female workers (80%) with 3,5 million workers nationwide spread across some 6000 factories. Many of them are in and around Ho Chi Minh City. Some 80% of workers have migrated from rural areas, to take up work in the industry. The Mekong Delta Region had the highest ratio of out-migration (2014) with 34.3 per thousand people and most residents from the Mekong River Delta chose the Southeast (where Ho Chi Minh City is located) as their destination. Women are typically young and single when they migrate (18-25). Even though prevailing wages in Vietnam’s 1st tier apparel and footwear factories are above minimum rates, they typically range between US$180-270, depending on the factory and seniority of the worker. The cost of childcare, schooling, housing and food can easily exceed migrant workers’ monthly salaries. They also experience much higher rates of unemployment, and are more likely to work in the informal sector or under conditions that local workers are less willing to accept, to make ends meet. In a recent baseline survey conducted with support from UNICEF among female migrant workers in the footwear and apparel industry, 23% of interviewed workers had children under the age of 15 not living with them. Key reasons given were poor living conditions, unsafe neighborhood and lack of child care options with almost 50% stating that their children would receive better care with relatives and in their hometown. Likewise, more than 20% of parents from the same study reported that they could not send their children to public kindergartens due to the lack of a permanent household registration.
Under the framework of the Child Friendly City Initiative and to further ensure that policy makers, planners and implementers have evidence for developing equity-focused and human centered solutions to the concerns faced by migrant workers and their children, it is critical to gain a better and deeper understanding of the meaning of internal migration to children and its impact on the lives of children and adolescents including those who are left behind or sent back and thereby separated from their parents/primary caregivers due to the difficulties they face in the city. In this context, the term “children left behind” refers to children who live in their original domicile, but do not live together with their parents, as either one parent or both parents have migrated and or children who are born in the city by migrant parents but separated and sent back to live with relatives in their parent home town.
 The 2015 National Migration Survey, Major Findings. Published by General Statistics Office and UNFPA in 2016
 As reported in vnexpress, August 17 2017 (quote from HCMC’s Mayor, Mr Nguyen Thanh Phong).
 Temporary migrants are perceived from the perspective of the host area, meaning that temporary migrants’ stays are understood as limited in time in the host area although they might leave the area of origin with permanent migration intentions. According to scholars, temporary migration is considered as exclusively economically motivated. (EURANET. Conceptual framework on temporary migration, ISBN: 978-951-44-9828-2)
 Children affected by migration fall into three main categories (i) children who migrate with their parents, (ii) children who are left behind when their parents migrate or sent to the home town of their parents to live with relatives and (iii) unaccompanied children who migrate by themselves.
 Hô khẩu is the name in Vietnamese of the household registration system which has been a part of the fabric of life in the country for over 50 years. The system was implemented as an instrument of public security, economic planning, and control of migration, at a time when the state played a stronger role in direct management of the economy and the life of its citizens. This system defines four types of residence, KT1 through KT4. KT1 is the primary and permanent type of residence. If this person moves on a semi-permanent basis to another place within the same province or national municipality, then he or she needs to register for a KT2 residential status at that new address. If this same move happens across provincial borders, then the person has to sign up for a KT3 registration. For migrant workers and students temporarily residing outside of their province or national municipality of permanent residence, they need to apply for a KT4 registration.
 Inter-population Census, General Statistics Office, 2014
 The apparel and footwear sector and children in Viet Nam, UNICEF 2016
Detailed Study Scope, Methodology and Tools, Expected Deliverables and timeline, please refer to the attached TOR. Vacancy Notice Internal Migration TOR.doc
The assignment will require a team of international and national experts. A lead international consultant will sign the lump sumcontract with UNICEF and befully responsible for producing intended outputs and achieving the expected results. She or he may propose any necessary Vietnamese expertise to support the consultancy (e.g. national consultant(s) and other support staff) or may recommend the recruitment of an independent national consultant(s). As the key implementing partner of the study, the Department of Labour and Social Affairs in Ho Chi Minh City will provide coordination and facilitation support to the consultants.
The research is expected to commence in October 2018 and end in April 2019.
The final study should include:
 The apparel and footwear sector and children in Viet Nam, UNICEF 2016
To qualify as an advocate for every child you will have…
In view of the purpose, scope, focus of the evaluative work, UNICEF is looking for an international individual consultant to lead a multidisciplinary team, composed of an international team leader and a national team member. The lead international consultant will sign a lump sum contract with UNICEF and be fully responsible for producing intended outputs and achieving the expected results.
Requirements for the international consultant:
Requirements for the national consultant:
Language: Excellent knowledge of written and spoken English and Vietnamese
Any changes of Team Leader and/or Team Member during the consultancy should be approved by UNICEF.
For evaluation and selection method, the Cumulative Analysis Method (weight combined score method) shall be used for this recruitment:
Technical Qualification (max. 100 points) weight 70 %
Financial Proposal (max. 100 points) weight 30 %
Technical Evaluation for team of international and national expertise (70%)
Must hold a Master’s Degree in a social science area including ethnography or anthropology or a bachelor degree with equivalent and sufficient professional and minimum 10 years of practical experience in related fields
Extensive research experience related to the impact on vulnerable groups such as internal migrants and their children of economic/rural to urban migration and rapid urbanization.
Knowledge and practical experience in applying innovative qualitative research method such as NSUM (network scale up method) or RDS (respondent driven sampling) and participatory data collection methods including story telling.
Skills and practical experience in engaging with and interviewing marginalized and vulnerable individuals including children and young people
Facilitation skills and ability to manage diversity of views in different cultural contexts with familiarity with the rights-based approach and the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
Solid management skills and ability to supervise and lead other team members
Ability to produce well written reports in English and Vietnamese demonstrating analytical ability, communication skills and tact in strategically addressing potentially sensitive matters
Financial evaluation (30%)
The maximum number of points shall be allotted to the lowest Financial Proposal that is opened /evaluated and compared among those technical qualified candidates who have attained a minimum 70 points score in the technical evaluation. Other Financial Proposals will receive points in inverse proportion to the lowest price.
The Contract shall be awarded to candidate obtaining the highest combined technical and financial scores, subject to the satisfactory result of the verification interview if needed.
Submission of applications
Interested candidates are kindly requested to apply and upload the following documents to the assigned requisition in UNICEF Vacancies: http://www.unicef.org/about/employ/
Submission Deadline: Wednesday 17 October 2018 at 23:55 hours Viet Nam Time.
For every Child, you demonstrate…
UNICEF’s core values of Commitment, Diversity and Integrity and core competencies in Communication, Working with People and Drive for Results.
View our competency framework at
UNICEF is committed to diversity and inclusion within its workforce, and encourages all candidates, irrespective of gender, nationality, religious and ethnic backgrounds, including persons living with disabilities, to apply to become a part of the organization.
UNICEF has a zero-tolerance policy on sexual exploitation and abuse, and on any kind of harassment, including sexual harassment, and discrimination. All selected candidates will, therefore, undergo rigorous reference and background checks.
Only shortlisted candidates will be contacted and advance to the next stage of the selection process.
How to apply:
UNICEF is committed to diversity and inclusion within its workforce, and encourages qualified female and male candidates from all national, religious and ethnic backgrounds, including persons living with disabilities, to apply to become a part of our organization. To apply, click on the following link http://www.unicef.org/about/employ/?job=516745